美国有关301调查的行动总统备忘录(全文)

1评论 2018-03-23 07:24:38 来源:金融界网站 弱市唯一赚钱方法曝光(干货)

  美国有关301调查的行动总统备忘录

  发布: 2018年3月22日

  主题:美国有关第301条调查中国与技术转让,知识产权和创新相关的法律,政策,做法或行动

  2017年8月14日,我指示美国贸易代表(贸易代表)决定是否调查中国的法律,政策,做法或行为,这些法律,政策,做法或行为可能不合理或歧视,可能会损害美国的知识产权,创新或技术开发。2017年8月18日,贸易代表根据经修订的1974年“贸易法”第301条(“法令”)(19 USC 2411)启动了调查。

  在调查期间,美国贸易代表办公室(USTR)与适当的咨询委员会和机构间301委员会进行磋商。贸易代表还要求根据该法第303条(19 USC 2413)与中国政府进行磋商。USTR于2017年10月10日举行公开听证会,并举行两轮公开书面评论期。USTR收到大约70份来自学术界,智库,律师事务所,贸易协会和公司的书面意见。

  贸易代表告诉我,调查支持以下结果:

  首先,中国使用外国所有权限制,包括合资要求,股权限制和其他投资限制,要求或迫使美国公司向中国实体转让技术。中国也使用行政审查和许可程序来要求或压力技术转让,这尤其破坏了美国投资和技术的价值,削弱了美国公司在全球的竞争力。

  其次,中国对美国企业的投资和活动施加了大量限制和干预,包括限制技术许可条款。这些限制剥夺了美国技术所有者能够讨价还价并为技术转让设定基于市场的术语。因此,寻求技术许可的美国公司必须按照不公平地支持中国受援国的条款这样做。

  第三,中国指导和促进中国企业系统性投资和收购美国公司和资产,以获得尖端技术和知识产权,并在中国政府工业计划视为重要的行业实现大规模技术转让。

  第四,中国对美国公司的计算机网络进行未经授权的入侵和盗窃。这些行为为中国政府提供未经授权的知识产权,商业机密或机密商业信息(包括技术数据,谈判立场以及敏感和专有的内部商业通信)的访问权限,并支持中国的战略发展目标,包括其科学和技术进步,军事现代化和经济发展。

  特此指示如下:

  1、关税。(a)贸易代表应根据该法第301条(19 USC 2411)采取一切适当行动来处理中国的不合理或歧视性行为,政策和做法,并加重或限制美国商业。贸易代表应考虑这种行为是否应包括来自中国的关税增加。

  (b)为推进本节(a)小节的目的,贸易代表应在本备忘录日期后15天内公布拟议的产品清单和任何拟定的关税增长。根据该法第304(b)条(19 USC 2414(b)),经过一段时间的通知和评论后,经与有关机构和委员会磋商,贸易代表应在适当和符合法律的情况下出版最终产品清单和关税增加(如果有的话),并执行任何此类关税。

  2、世贸组织争端解决。(a)贸易代表应在适当和符合法律的前提下,在世界贸易组织(WTO)争取解决争端,以解决中国歧视性的许可做法。在适当和符合法律的情况下,贸易代表应与其他WTO成员合作采取这一行动,以解决中国不公平的贸易行为。

  (b)在本备忘录发布之日起60天内,贸易代表应向本人报告本节(a)项下的进展情况。

  3、投资限制。(a)财政部长(秘书)应与秘书认为适当的其他高级行政部门官员协商,酌情并根据法律建议行政部门采取行动,并利用任何法定机构解决投资方面的问题在美国由中国指导或推动对美国重要的行业或技术。

  (b)在本备忘录发布之日起60天内,秘书应向我报告本节(a)项下的进展情况。

  4、出版物。贸易代表被授权并指示将该备忘录发布在联邦登记册上。

  唐纳德.J.特朗普

  以下为英文全文:

  Presidential Memorandum on the Actions by the United States Related to the Section 301 Investigation

  MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY

  THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE

  THE SENIOR ADVISOR FOR POLICY

  THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR ECONOMIC POLICY

  THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS

  THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR HOMELAND

  SECURITY AND COUNTERTERRORISM

  SUBJECT:Actions by the United States Related to the Section 301 Investigation of China’s Laws, Policies, Practices, or Actions Related to Technology Transfer, Intellectual Property, andInnovation

  On August 14, 2017, I directed the United States Trade Representative (Trade Representative) to determine whether to investigate China’s laws, policies, practices, or actions that may be unreasonable or discriminatory and that may be harming American intellectual property rights, innovation, or technology development.On August 18, 2017, the Trade Representative initiated an investigation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2411).

  During its investigation, the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) consulted with aPPropriate advisory committees and the interagency section 301 Committee.The Trade Representative also requested consultations with the Government of China, under section 303 of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2413).The USTR held a public hearing on October 10, 2017, and two rounds of public written comment periods.The USTR received approximately 70 written submissions from academics, think tanks, law firms, trade associations, and companies.

  The Trade Representative has advised me that the investigation supports the following findings:

  First, China uses foreign ownership restrictions, including joint venture requirements, equity limitations, and other investment restrictions, to require or pressure technology transfer from U.S. companies to Chinese entities.China also uses administrative review and licensing procedures to require or pressure technology transfer, which, inter alia, undermines the value of U.S. investments and technology and weakens the global competitiveness of U.S. firms.

  Second, China imposes substantial restrictions on, and intervenes in, U.S. firms’ investments and activities, including through restrictions on technology licensing terms.These restrictions deprive U.S. technology owners of the ability to bargain and set market-based terms for technology transfer.As a result, U.S. companies seeking to license technologies must do so on terms that unfairly favor Chinese recipients.

  Third, China directs and facilitates the systematic investment in, and acquisition of, U.S. companies and assets by Chinese companies to obtain cutting-edge technologies and intellectual property and to generate large-scale technology transfer in industries deemed important by Chinese government industrial plans.

  Fourth, China conducts and supports unauthorized intrusions into, and theft from, the computer networks of U.S. companies.These actions provide the Chinese government with unauthorized access to intellectual property, trade secrets, or confidential business information, including technical data, negotiating positions, and sensitive and proprietary internal business communications, and they also support China’s strategic development goals, including its science and technology advancement, military modernization, and economic development.

  It is hereby directed as follows:

  Section 1.Tariffs.(a)The Trade Representative shouldtake all appropriate action under section 301 of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2411) to address the acts, policies, and practices of China that are unreasonable or discriminatory and that burden or restrict U.S. commerce.The Trade Representative shall consider whether such action should include increased tariffs on goods from China.

  (b)To advance the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the Trade Representative shall publish a proposed list of products and any intended tariff increases within 15 days ofthe date of this memorandum.After a period of notice and comment in accordance with section 304(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 2414(b)), and after consultation with appropriate agencies and committees, the Trade Representative shall, as appropriate and consistent with law, publish a final list of products and tariff increases, if any, and implement any such tariffs.

  Sec. 2.WTO Dispute Settlement.(a)The Trade Representative shall, as appropriate and consistent with law, pursue dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO) to address China’s discriminatory licensing practices.Where appropriate and consistent with law, the Trade Representative should pursue this action in cooperation with other WTO members to address China’s unfair trade practices.

  (b)Within 60 days of the date of this memorandum, the Trade Representative shall report to me his progress under subsection (a) of this section.

  Sec. 3.Investment Restrictions.(a)The Secretary of the Treasury (Secretary), in consultation with other senior executive branch officials the Secretary deems appropriate, shall propose executive branch action, as appropriate and consistent with law, and using any available statutory authority, to address concerns about investment in the UnitedStates directed or facilitated by China in industries ortechnologies deemed important to the United States.

  (b)Within 60 days of the date of this memorandum, the Secretary shall report to me his progress under subsection (a) of this section.

  Sec. 4.Publication.The Trade Representative is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

  DONALD J. TRUMP

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责任编辑:赵昀伟 RF11518
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