曹德旺美国工厂再调查(上)

1评论 2017-08-04 06:55:44 来源:英文联播 作者:ALANA SEMUELS 涨停板,就要这样抓

   Will China Save the American Economy?(Part 1)

  曹德旺美国工厂再调查(上)

  MORAINE, Ohio—For years,DonjianXu and her husband operated a sleepy Chinese restaurant in this industrial suburb of Dayton, cooking up American-style Chinese food like sweet-and-sour chicken and beef with broccoli for customers who would stop in on their lunch break.

  莫雷纳,俄亥俄州。多年来,徐冬见(音译)和她的丈夫在代顿市郊外的工业区经营着一家生意冷清的中餐馆。他们为午餐时间用餐的客人提供美式中餐,例如甜酸鸡和花椰菜牛肉。

  Then, three years ago, a new crowd started coming into Dragon China: Chinese natives who missed home and were craving something different than the hamburgers and pasta that everybody seemed to eat in Ohio. The Chinese, mostly businessmen, would come in and order things not on the menu—noodle soup with vegetables and fish balls, for example. Sometimes, CaoDewang, afamousself-made billionaire from China, would come in and sit at the corner table with his deputies, and “that’s when we [would] need to make something really special,” Xu told me.

  就在三年前,一群新客人涌进这家名为“中国龙”的饭店。这些思乡的中国人,渴望吃到与俄亥俄州普通人吃的汉堡和意大利面不一样的食物。中国人大多经商,他们走进餐馆,点菜单上没有的菜品,比方说“蔬菜鱼丸清汤面”。有时,在中国白手起家的著名亿万富豪曹德旺也会来,和他的副手们坐在角落的一张桌子旁。“那就真轮到我们做些‘特别的’东西了。”徐冬见告诉我。

  Dewangvisits this Ohio town because it’s the home of the American factory he built for his Chinese company,FuyaoGlass. He spent $700 million in 2014 to rehabilitate a shuttered General Motors plant, whereFuyaonow makes automotive glass that it sells to U.S. automakers.Fuyaoemploys 2,000, the majority of whom are Americans. “This place could be the next General Motors if it’s done right,” an employee named Larry Yates, who worked at the GM plant for 25 years, told me. “I want to see them do well and succeed.” Hundreds of Chinese executives work here, too, and, having brought their families from China, are buying homes and cars and enrolling their children in local schools.

  曹德旺来到这座俄亥俄镇子,原因是他的中国公司福耀玻璃在这里兴建了一家美国工厂。2014年,他耗资7亿美元重整了一家已经关张的通用汽车厂。现在,福耀玻璃在工厂生产汽车玻璃,销售给美国汽车制造商。福耀雇佣了2000名员工,多数是美国人。“如果做的好,这里会成为下一个通用汽车,”在通用工厂工作了25年的员工拉里·耶茨告诉我,“我希望他们能获得成功。”在代顿市,还有成百上千的中国经理人工作,他们拖家带口,在这里买房、买车,送孩子去当地学校读书。

  Chinese investors are investing heavily in the United States. In 2016, Chinese businesses spent $46 billion on foreign direct investment in the United States, a threefold increase from the $15 billion they spent in 2015, according to the Rhodium Group, a research firm that analyzes global investment trends. Chinese-owned firms now suPPort more than 140,000 jobs nationwide, nine times as many as in 2009.

  中国投资者在美国有大量投资。国际投资趋势研究机构荣鼎集团指出,2016年,中国企业在美国的海外直接投资额达460亿美元,较2015年的150亿,增加了两倍。中国企业在全美支撑了超过14万就业岗位,较2009年增长了八倍。

  President Trump has made reversing or resisting globalization a cornerstone of his economic policies and ideology, issuing executive orders directing the executive branch tohire and buy American, pulling out of trade deals such as the Trans Pacific Partnership, and promising to renegotiate NAFTA. But much of the economic activity being generated around the country comes because of globalization, not in spite of it. Globalization helped bolster economies around the world, including China’s, and is now allowing a class of wealthy people and companies from those economies to invest in the United States, creating jobs in depressed regions like Ohio.

  特朗普总统将逆转或抵制全球化的理念视为其经济政策和意识形态基石,他发布行政令要求行政部门雇美国人,买美国货,退出包括跨太平洋伙伴关系协议在内的贸易协定,并承诺重订北美自由贸易协定。但全球化促进而非阻碍了美国境内大部分经济活动。全球化增进了包括中国在内的世界各大经济体的繁荣,并让这些经济体中富人和公司赴美投资,为俄亥俄州等经济萧条的地区创造工作机会。

  Foreign companies are responsible for many of the jobs in states like Ohio today—they employ 18.5 percent of manufacturing workers in the U.S., according to the Brookings Institution. Other foreign companies creating jobs in Ohio include the Danish firmXelliaPharmaceuticals and the German auto-parts supplierBorgers. “People typically think of trade or globalization as a one-waystreet in which they're on the losing end—if you listen to the president talk about this, you would come away thinking that we've only lost in this equation,” JosephParilla, a fellow at the Brookings Institution, told me. “Nobody has talked about the infusion of capital that comes from foreign companies that are supporting a ton of jobs in the U.S.”

  布鲁金斯学会指出,在俄亥俄州等地的大量岗位都归功于外国企业,它们在美国雇佣了18.5%的制造业工人。其他在俄亥俄创造就业的外国公司包括丹麦雅莱药业公司和德国汽车零部件制造商伯格斯。“人们通常认为贸易或全球化是一条单行道,他们总处在失利的一端。如果你听总统谈这件事,你会觉得我们只赔不赚,”布鲁金斯学会研究员约瑟夫·帕里拉对我说,“没人提过外国公司注入美国的资本支撑了大量美国就业。”

  But the increased investment comes with some growing pains. Chinese executives told me it’s hard to get American factories to become as efficient as Chinese ones, partly because Americans work fewer hours than Chinese workers do—on average, the Chinese work2,200 hoursa year, compared to 1,790 for the United States. They also say there are not enough qualified workers in manufacturing in Ohio, and that workers are unreliable.

  但投资增加,痛苦也随之而来。中国经理人告诉我,美国工厂的效率难与中国工厂相比,部分原因是美国工人的工作时长比中国工人短。中国工人年平均工作2200小时,而美国工人只有1790个小时。他们还说俄亥俄州胜任的制造业工人不足,即使有,也不可靠。

  Workers have their own complaints, asThe New York Timesreported recently. Workers say that Chinese companies operating in the U.S. don’t adhere to American labor standards and working hours. The workers complain about poor treatment, and one worker recentlysuedFuyaoon behalf of herself and others, alleging that the companydidn’t pay them overtime.

  《纽约时报》近期报道,工人亦有自己的抱怨。工人们认为在美国建厂的中国企业不遵守美国劳工标准和法定工作时间。工人们抱怨待遇差,一名工人最近代表自己和工友起诉福耀玻璃,指控其未支付加班费。

  Another man alleges thatFuyaoexposed him to chemicals that gave him blisters and made it difficult to breathe. The workers also say thatFuyaoisn’t investing in training them, which is leading to low productivity at the factory.Fuyaodisagreed with the criticisms, telling me that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) had investigated the claim of chemical use and found no violations, and that its policies on overtime and paid leave are straightforward.

  还有一名工人指控福耀让他暴露在化学品中,他起了水疱,呼吸困难。工人还称福耀没有投资培训他们,这才导致工厂生产率低下。福耀否认这一批评,公司方面对我说,美国职业安全和卫生署对化学品使用投诉进行了调查,结果未发现违规情况,且公司的加班和带薪休假政策一目了然。

  Dayton—and Ohio—needs plants likeFuyaoto succeed. New-business creationis falteringin America, with the number of new start-ups at 40-year lows. Foreign investment could be a key to creating new jobs for Americans. The question is whether foreign companies will continue to find America worth their investment.

  代顿市以及俄亥俄州希望福耀这样的企业获得成功。美国新创立企业正在减少,初创企业数量四十年来最少。外国投资是新增就业岗位的关键。问题在于今后外国公司认为在美国投资还有没有价值。

  In the cavernous white lobby of theFuyaofactory on a recent morning, a handful of people in suits sat under a Chinese flag, filling out job applications. They were seeking open positions atFuyao, which had just announced that it was raising its hourly wage by $2 in order to attract new workers and decrease turnover. That drew in people like William Oliver, 31, who has an associate’s degree and was applying for a position on third shift (11 p.m. to 7 a.m.) so he could work atFuyaowhile he attended school. Once he heard about the raise, he told me, “I knew I had to come down here.”

  一天早晨,在福耀工厂宽阔排场的白色大堂中,一些身着正装的求职者坐在中国国旗下填写就业申请书。他们在福职,公司刚刚宣布工人时薪提高2美元,以吸引新员工,降低人员流动。此举吸引了31岁的威廉·奥利弗,他正在攻读副学士学位,想找个能上夜班的岗位(晚上11点至早上7点),这样就能在工作的同时保证学业。他告诉我,一听说提了薪,“我就知道我肯定要来。”

  Not long ago, companies were decamping for overseas locations like China and Mexico, where they could save millions in labor costs. In 2004, factory workers in China made $4.35 an hour, compared to $17.54 that the average factory worker made in the U.S.,according to theBoston Consulting Group.

  不久前,(美国)公司还在忙着拔营前往海外建厂,比方说中国或墨西哥,以节省大笔人工成本。据波士顿咨询公司数据显示,2004年,中国工人时薪4.35美元,美国工人时薪平均17.54美元。

  But labor expenses are rising in China. According to theChinese Business Climate Survey, put out by the American Chamber of Commerce in China and the consulting firm Bain &;; Company, businesses there cite rising labor costs as their top problem. That’s in part because worker organizations are gaining strength, and strikes and labor disputes are becoming more common. Today, Chinese manufacturing wages adjusted for productivity are $12.47 an hour, compared to $22.32 in the United States, according to the Boston Consulting Group.

  可近年来,中国劳工成本不断增长。中国美国商会和贝恩咨询公司共同发布的《中国商业环境调查》显示,在中国建厂的企业将不断增加的劳工成本视作头号问题,部分原因是工人组织力量壮大起来,罢工和劳工纠纷频发。波士顿咨询集团数据显示,经过生产率调整的中国工人平均工资,如今每小时12.47美元,而美国工人时薪为22.32美元。

  Wages aren’t the only costs in China that are rising. The price of electricity has increased 15 percent since 2010, and industrial land is becoming more expensive too. Taxes are high as well:Dewang, the head ofFuyaoGlass, saidin an interviewlate last year that he had moved his plant to the U.S. because China had the“world’s highest taxes.”(Actually, income taxes are higher in many Scandinavian countries than in China, and the corporate income-tax rate in China is25 percent, which is lower than in the U.S.)“Apart from labor costs, everything else is cheaper in the U.S. than in China,”hehas said.

  在中国,上涨的不只是工资。从2010年以来,电费增长了15%,工业用地越来越贵。税收也很高:福耀玻璃董事长曹德旺去年底接受采访时说,把工厂从中国搬到美国,因为中国有“全世界最高的税收”(实际上,许多北欧国家的收入所得税都比中国高,且中国的企业所得税率为25%,比美国还低)。“除劳工成本以外,美国什么都比中国便宜。”他说。

  These factors alone would be enough reason to give companies pause about locating factories in China. But there are other reasons Chinese businessmen are looking outside of their own country for investment opportunities. There are so many cash-flush investors in China that there are fewer good opportunities to buy companies, and so people with money have fewer places to put it, saidEswarPrasad, a professor of trade policy at Cornell. Such investors might have once put their money into U.S. securities, but the rate of return is low, so they’re turning their attention to buying foreign companies instead. (Most Chinese investment abroad comes in the form of outright purchases of other companies; theFuyaofactory stands out in that the company decided to build its own products there, rather than acquire an existing business.)

  仅这些因素就足够让企业停止在中国建厂,但中国商人在国外寻找投资机会还另有原因。康奈尔大学贸易政策教授埃斯瓦尔·普拉萨德说,由于中国有许多现金充裕的投资者,但购买公司的好机会变少了,有钱没处花。这些投资者曾投资美国国债,但回报率低,于是他们的注意力转向购买外国企业。(大部分海外的中国投资者都直接购买海外公司,福耀则与众不同,它决定白手起家,而非并购既有企业。)

  Many investors also want to diversify their portfolio by investing in companies outside of China, said Daniel Rosen, a founding partner at the Rhodium Group. And investors are worried about a weaker Chinese currency in the future, so they are making big bets while their money still goes relatively far. It’s not just in the U.S.: Chinese outbound foreign direct investment reached $200 billion in 2016, with deals in Europe, Africa, and South America as well. In total, the Rhodium Group calculates that China invested $46 billion in the U.S. in 2016, almost three times as much as the U.S. invested in China that year.

  荣鼎集团联合创始人丹尼尔·罗森表示,许多投资者希望通过海外投资,让投资组合多元化。投资者还担心人民币在未来走贬,因此他们进行海外投资。不仅在美国:2016年,包括在欧、非、南美洲的投资,中国对外直接投资额达2000亿美元。荣鼎集团指出,中国2016年在美投资供460亿美元,接近同期美国在华投资的三倍。

  “The U.S. is seeing the same pattern of increasing Chinese investment that is taking place worldwide,” Rosen told me. Often, investors buy existing companies overseas simply as an investment—96 percent of Chinese investments in the U.S. in 2016 were in acquisitions, according to the Rhodium Group. The Chinese manufacturer HaierboughtGeneral Electric’s appliance division last year, for instance, and a consortium of Chinese investorsboughtthe printer company Lexmark. Plants likeFuyaoare different. They are what Rhodium calls“greenfield”investments, which means the company builds a new plant from the ground up and hires new people. These have represented a small share of Chinese investments in advanced economies like the United States, but are “likely to continue rising significantly in the year ahead,” Rosen said.

  罗森告诉我说:“中国对美投资增加,这一模式在全球其他地方也如出一辙。”投资者经常把在海外收购既有企业视作投资。荣鼎集团调查显示,96%的中国在美投资都是收购。例如,中国制造商海尔去年买下了通用电气公司的家电部门,中国一财团收购了打印机制造商利盟。像福耀这样的工厂是个例外,他们被荣鼎集团称为“开荒”投资,因为他们在海外建新厂,雇佣新员工。这是中国对美国等发达经济体投资的一小部分,但罗森认为“将在近年中大幅增长”。

  Withgreenfieldinvestments, Chinese companies often bring their own executives to come in and run operations. I met one such person, a 35-year-old named Wei Liu, at the Dragon China restaurant on a recent weekday, where he had stopped for a quick lunch. Liu had brought his wife and daughter to Dayton, a town he’d never heard of, to improve his career prospects, he told me. “If I work here, I will have more chances,” he said, as he waited for his food. He likes living in America, though he says Dayton isn’t as diverse as other American cities he’s been to, and he doesn’t love the winters.

  在开荒投资中,中国公司常让自己的经理人到美国负责运营。最近某个工作日,我见到了35岁的刘伟,他正在中国龙餐馆吃午餐。他以前从没听说过代顿市,为了职业发展,他携妻子和女儿来到这里。“在这里工作,我会有更多机会。”他等餐时告诉我说。虽然他觉得代顿不像他去过的其他美国城市那样多姿多彩,还不喜欢这里的冬天,但表示自己喜欢住在美国。

  Fuyaomade a greenfield investment in Ohio because it wanted to be closer to its customers, which are auto companies building cars in the United States, Jeff Liu, the president ofFuyaoGlass America, told me. The U.S. auto market is currently booming, setting anew recordfor sales last year, andFuyaowants to become a bigger part of the distribution chain. Shipping glass from China was expensive and dicey, as the product would sometimes break, which in turn made the process more costly, he said.

  福耀玻璃美国总裁刘道川告诉我,福耀选择在俄亥俄进行绿地投资,因为这里距离顾客美国的汽车生产商更近。近年来,美国的汽车市场在复兴,去年创下了新销售记录,福耀想在分销链上占据更大份额。从中国运玻璃到美国价格昂贵,风险也高,玻璃制品会碎,因此整个过程花费更多。

  Fuyaospent around$700 millionto get the plant up and running, bringing hundreds of Chinese workers to Dayton to set up the plant and supervise new hires. Now, it’s turning its attention to hiring more Americans, and to becoming a “truly American company,” Liu told me. “We want to be the best employer in this town,” he said.

  福耀美国工厂的建造和运营上耗费近7亿美元,中国数百名员工来建厂并负责招聘。现在,工厂雇佣越来越多的美国人,努力成为一个“真正的美国公司”。刘道川对我说:“我们想成为代顿市最好的雇主。”

  To be the best employer in town, though,Fuyaoneeds to be able to stay open, and so far, the factory isn’t making money.Fuyaohas been working on its factory since 2014, but it still isn’t running at full capacity.FuyaoGlass America posted a $41 million loss in 2016, the company said in its annual report.

  可要成为市里最好的雇主,福耀必须生存下去。到目前为止,工厂还没赚到钱。2014年以来,福耀开始运营工厂,但始终未能开足马力。福耀玻璃美国公司2016年年报显示,当年亏损4100万美元。

  Some of the losses were because the company had to spend so much money on equipment to get the plant running, Liu told me. But productivity per worker in Moraine is 10 to 15 percent lower than it is in China, he said, adding “We have a big gap to catch up to China, but we’ll get there.”

  道川对我说,亏损的部分原因是公司购置了建厂所需的设备。但莫雷纳工人的生产力比中国工人低10%到15%。 “赶上中国,还有很大差距,但我们会成功的。”

  Chinese companies also struggle to operate in an environment where there are a network of safety regulations that do not exist to the same extent in China. “It’s an example of the challenges of working on a more advanced economy where workers have much broader protections and safety standards and rights than is normal back in China,” says Rosen, of the Rhodium Group.

  在美中国公司的运营环境更为困难,美国有一套比中国标准更高的安全生产规定。“这是在发达经济体要面临的挑战之一,”荣鼎集团的罗森说,“与中国相比,这里的工人享受着更多、更广的保护措施、安全标准和权利。”

  The company says it can’t find enough skilled people to fill open positions, Liu said, even when it raised the wages by $2 an hour. Most workers aren’t trained in automotive glass in the Dayton area, and many aren’t accustomed to working in the heat of the factory. Turnover has been high at theFuyaoplant so far, with workers quitting, and managers complain that American workers often show up late and take too much time off.

  道川表示,即使时薪提高2美元,福耀仍无法招足技术人才以填补空缺。代顿市大部分工人都没有受过汽车玻璃制造训练,很多人不习惯在工厂的高温中工作。工人纷纷辞职,管理层也常抱怨美国工人总是迟到、请假,因此福耀工厂的人员流动率至今居高不下。

  未完待续

关键词阅读:曹德旺 美国工厂

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