iPhone向左 天堂向右

1评论 2017-07-12 07:05:34 来源:英文联播 作者:Brian Merchant 江丰电子凭什么能涨15倍

  LIFE and death in APPle’s forbiDDen city

  iPhone向左 天堂向右

  The sprawling factory compound, all grey dormitories and weather-beaten warehouses, blends seamlessly into the outskirts of the Shenzhen megalopolis. Foxconn’s enormous Longhua plant is a major manufacturer of Apple products.

  杂乱蔓生的厂房、灰突突的宿舍和风吹雨打的仓库天衣无缝地熔进深圳这座大都市的边缘地带。庞大的富士康龙华工厂是苹果产品的一个重要制造地。

  It might be the best-known factory in the world; it might also might be among the most secretive and sealed-off. Security guards man each of the entry points. Employees CAn’t get in without swiping an ID card; drivers entering with delivery trucks are subject to fingerprint scans.

  这里可能是世界上最出名的工厂,也最神、最封闭。保安把守着每个入口,不刷证件,员工无法进入,运货的卡车司机也要进行指纹扫描。

  A Reuters journalist was once dragged out of a car and beaten for taking photos from outside the factory walls. The warning signs outside – “This factory area is legally established with state approval. Unauthorised trespassing is prohibited. Offenders will be sent to police for prosecution!” – are more aggressive than those outside many Chinese military compounds.

  一位路透社记者曾透过工厂外墙拍照,结果从车上被拽了下来,还挨了打。警告牌就张贴在墙外:“工厂经国家许可合法成立,未经授权,禁止闯入。擅入者将移送司法机关处理。”这比许多中国军营外的标语还要吓人。

  But it turns out that there’s a secret way into the heart of the infamous operation: use the BAthroom. I couldn’t believe it. Thanks to a simple twist of fate and some clever perseverance by my fixer, I’d found myself deep inside so-called FoxconnCity.

  但其实有个秘密通道,可以进入这家工厂的核心地区:借厕所。我简直不敢相信,一下子就转了运,我的带路人不言放弃,略施小计,我发现自己竟打入了所谓的富士康城。

  It’s printed on the back of every iPhone: “Designed by Apple in California Assembled in China”. US law dictates that products manufactured in China MUst be labelled as such and Apple’s inclusion of the phrase renders the statement uniquely illustrative of one of the planet’s starkest economic divides – the cutting edge is conceived and designed in Silicon Valley, but it is assembled by hand in China.

  每个苹果手机后都有这行字:“加利福尼亚苹果公司设计,中国组装。”美国法律规定,中国制造的产品必须如是标明,有苹果二字,该声明显示了这个星球上最大的经济鸿沟,这是独一无二的:尖端技术在硅谷成形并设计,却在中国用手来组装。

  The vast majority of plants that produce the iPhone’s component parts and carry out the device’s final assembly are based here, in the People’s Republic, where low labour COSTs and a massive, highly skilled workforce have made the nation the ideal place to manufacture iPhones (and just about every other gadget).

  生产苹果手机配件并进行最后组装的绝大部分厂房都在这里——中华人民共和国,这里劳动力成本低廉,有大量熟练工人,使得这个国家成为苹果手机和所有其他电子产品的理想制造地。

  The country’s vast, unprecedented production capabilities – the US Bureau of Labor Statistics estiMATed that as of 2009 there were 99 million factory workers in China – have helped the nation become the world’s second largest economy.

  这个国家拥有空前庞大的生产能力。美国劳工统计局预测,截至2009年,中国有9900万工人,他们帮助国家成为世界第二大经济体。

  And since the first iPhone shipped, the company doing the lion’s share of the manufacturing is the Taiwanese Hon Hai Precision Industry Co, Ltd, better known by its trade name, Foxconn.Foxconn is the single largest employer in mainland China; there are 1.3 million people on its payroll. Worldwide, among corporations, only Walmart and MCDonald’s employ more. As many people work for Foxconn as live in Estonia.

  第一台苹果手机交付,台湾的鸿海精密工业公司,也就是富士康,完成了大部分生产工作。富士康是中国大陆最大的雇佣者,有130万名员工。世界各公司中,只有沃尔玛和麦当劳的员工超过它,富士康员工数量和爱沙尼亚人口一样多。

  Today, the iPhone is made at a number of different factories around China, but for years, as it became the bestselling product in the world, it was largely assembled at Foxconn’s 1.4 square-mile flaGShip plant, just outside Shenzhen. The sprawling factory was once home to an estimated 450,000 workers.

  今天,苹果手机在中国不同的工厂生产。但过去多年里,随着苹果成为世界上最畅销的产品,大部分都在富士康1.4平方英里的深圳旗舰工厂中组装。杂乱庞大的工厂一度容纳约45万工人。

  Today, that number is believed to be smaller, but it remains one of the biggest such operations in the world. If you know of Foxconn, there’s a good chance it’s because you’ve heard of the suicides. In 2010, Longhua assembly-line workers began killing themselves.Worker after worker threw themselves off the towering dorm buildings, sometimes in broad daylight, in tragic DISplays of desperation – and in protest at the work conditions inside. There were 18 reported suicide attempts that year alone and 14 confirmed deaths. Twenty more workers were talked down by Foxconn officials.

  现在,这个数字可能少一些了,但那里仍然是世界上最大的制造基地之一。如果你知道富士康,多半因为你听说那里发生了自杀事件。2010年,龙华装配员工开始自杀。一个又一个工人从高耸的宿舍楼跳了下去,有人就在光天化日之下,心中绝望,或是抗议工厂里的工作条件。那一年,光自杀的人就有18个,其中14人死亡。20多个人被富士康领导劝了下来。

  The epidemic caused a media sensation – suicides and sweatshop conditions in the House of iPhone. Suicide notes and survivors told of immense stress, long workdays and harsh managers who were prone to humiliate workers for mistakes, of unfair fines and uNKEpt promises of benefits.

  媒体大肆报道自杀潮——自杀和苹果血汗工厂。死者遗言和幸存者谈及巨大的压力和长时间工作;经理很厉害,总因工人犯错而羞辱他们,还有不公平的罚款和无法兑现的奖金承诺。

  The corporate response spurred further unease: Foxconn CEO, Terry Gou, had large nets installed outside many of the buildings to CATch falling bodies. The company hired counsellors and workers were made to sign pledges stating they would not attempt to kill themselves.

  公司的回应引发更大的不安:富士康CEO郭台铭安排人在大楼外拉起一张大网,想接住跳楼的人。公司还聘请了咨询师,要求工人写下不自杀保证书。

  Steve Jobs, for his part, declared: “We’re all over that” when asked about the spate of deaths and he pointed out that the rate of suicides at Foxconn was within the national average. Critics pounced on the comment as callous, though he wasn’t technically wrong.

  被问到如何评价自杀潮时,史蒂夫·乔布斯曾宣称:“我们已经翻过那一页了。”他指出,富士康的自杀率在国家平均范围内。批评者抨击这一言论,称其冷酷无情,尽管从技术上讲并没有说错。

  Foxconn Longhua was so massive that it could be its own nation-state, and the suicide rate was comparable to its host country’s. The difference is that Foxconn City is a nation-state governed entirely by a corporation and one that happened to be producing one of the most profitable products on the planet.

  富士康龙华厂太大了,简直算得上一个独立的民族国家,自杀率堪比其母国。不同之处在于富士康城是一个完全由公司控制的民族国家,只是恰好生产了这个星球上利润最高的产品之一。

  A cab driver lets us out in front of the factory; boxy blue letters spell out Foxconn next to the entrance. The security guards eye us, half bored, half suspicious. My fixer, a journalist from Shanghai whom I’ll call Wang Yang, and I decide to walk the premises first and talk to workers, to see if there might be a way to get inside. The first people we stop turn out to be a pair of former Foxconn workers.

  一个出租车司机让我们在工厂门前下车,入口旁四方蓝色字母拼写的正是“富士康”。保安打量着我们,有点不耐烦,也有点狐疑。我的带路人是一位来自上海的记者,我叫他王阳。我决定在办公区走走,和工人聊聊,打探一下有没有办法进去。我们第一次叫住的是富士康以前的两个员工。

  “It’s not a good place for human beings,” says one of the young men, who goes by the name Xu. He’d worked in Longhua for about a year, until a couple of months ago, and he says the conditions inside are as bad as ever. “There is no improvement since the media coverage,” Xu says.

  “不是人呆的地方。”一个自称姓徐的年轻人说。他在龙华干了一年,几个月前辞职离开。他说现在里面的情况与以前一样糟。“媒体报了也没什么变化。”

  The work is very high pressure and he and his colleagues regularly logged 12-hour shifts. Management is both aggressive and duplicitous, publicly scolding workers for being too slow and making them promises they don’t keep, he says.His friend, who worked at the factory for two years and chooses to stay anonymous, says he was promised double pay for overtime hours but got only regular pay. They paint a bleak picture of a high-pressure working environment where exploitation is routine and where depression and suicide have become normalised.

  工作压力很大,他和工友们一般一天两班,每班12个小时。管理层很厉害,很奸诈,公开斥责工人们手太慢,许下的承诺也不兑现,他说。他的一位不愿透露姓名的朋友则说,有人承诺加班会给双倍工资,结果和平时拿的钱一样。此人在工厂干了两年。他们共同勾勒出一个高压的工作环境,很悲惨,受剥削是家常便饭,抑郁和自杀很正常。

  “It wouldn’t be Foxconn without people dying,” Xu says. “Every year people kill themselves. They take it as a normal thing.”

  “没人死就不是富士康了。”徐说,“每年都有人自杀,他们都习以为常了。”

  Over several visits to different iPhone assembly factories in Shenzhen and Shanghai, we interviewed dozens of workers like these. Let’s be honest: to get a truly representative sample of life at an iPhone factory would require a massive canvassing effort and the systematic and clandestine interviewing of thousands of employees.So take this for what it is: efforts to talk to often skittish, often wary and often bored workers who were coming out of the factory gates, taking a lunch break or congregating after their shifts.

  我们访问了在深圳和上海的其他苹果装配工厂,采访了数十名这样的工人。老实说,想得到真正有代表性的苹果工厂生存样本需要广采深挖,系统性并秘密地采访数千名工人。所以别较真了,我们不过就是与那些担惊受怕、有所提防和烦躁无趣的工人谈了谈,他们走出工厂大门,吃口中午饭,或是下班后聚聚。

  The vision of life inside an iPhone factory that emerged was varied. Some found the work tolerable; others were scathing in their criticisms; some had EXPErienced the despair Foxconn was known for; still others had taken a job just to try to find a girlfriend.Most knew of the reports of poor conditions before joining, but they either needed the work or it didn’t bother them. Almost everywhere, people said the workforce was young and turnover was high.

  他们对苹果工厂生活的看法各不相同。有的觉得还能忍受,有的则深恶痛绝,有的经历了所谓富士康式的绝望,还有的上班不过是为了找个女友。很多人入职前就知道这里条件不佳,他们或者需要这份工作,或者觉得条件无所谓。但每个地方,人们都反映工人很年轻,流失得也很快。

  “Most employees last only a year,” was a common refrain. Perhaps that’s because the pace of work is widely agreed to be relentless, and the management culture is often described as cruel.

  “很多员工只干一年。”这是老生常谈了。可能因为大家都明白,工作节奏很快,管理层文化很残酷。

  Since the iPhone is such a compact, complex machine, putting one together correctly requires sprawling assembly lines of hundreds of people who build, inspect, test and package each device. One worker said 1,700 iPhones passed through her hands every day; she was in charge of wiping a special polish on the display. That works out at about three screens a minute for 12 hours a day.

  因为苹果手机小巧又复杂,正确组装需要数百人在庞大的装配线上工作,组装、检查、测试、包装每一个设备。一名工人说每天经手1700多只手机,她负责将一种特殊的抛光剂擦在显示屏上。一分钟三块屏幕,每天工作达12小时。

  More meticulous work, like FASTening chip boards and assembling back covers, was slower; these workers have a minute apiece for each iPhone. That’s still 600 to 700 iPhones a day.Failing to meet a quota or making a mistake can draw public condemnation from superiors. Workers are often expected to stay silent and may draw rebukes from their bosses for asking to use the restroom.

  更加细致的工作,如安装芯片和安装后盖,需要的时间更长一些,一分钟一台苹果机,每天做600到700台。完不成定额或是出错会被监理公开批评。工人们要保持安静,如果要上厕所,还会被老板呵斥。

  Xu and his friend were both walk-on recruits, though not necessarily willing ones. “They call Foxconn a fox trap,” he says. “Because it tricks a lot of people.” He says Foxconn promised them free housing but then forced them to pay exorbitantly high bills for electricity and water. The current dorms sleep eight to a room and he says they used to be 12 to a room.

  徐和他的朋友都是临时工,尽管他们也未必情愿如此。“他们把富士康称为陷阱,因为它耍了很多人。”他说,富士康承诺提供免费住房,却强迫他们支付高昂的水电费。现在一个宿舍住八个人,过去曾住过十二个人。

  But Foxconn would shirk social insurance and be late or fail to pay bonuses. And many workers sign contracts that subtract a hefty penalty from their pay if they quit before a three-month introductory period.

  富士康会克扣缴纳社保的钱,推迟或者干脆不发奖金。很多工人签订合同,合同说如果三个月实习期内离职,会从工资中扣掉很大一笔罚金。

  On top of that, the work is gruelling. “You have to have mental management,” says Xu, otherwise you can get scolded by bosses in front of your peers. Instead of discussing performance privately or face to face on the line, managers would stockpile complaints until later.

  最致命的是,工作太严酷了。“你必须自我心理调节。”徐说,否则当着同事的面会被领导训斥。经理不会私下或者在生产线旁面对面地谈论你的表现,他会秋后算账。

  “When the boss comes down to inspect the work,” Xu’s friend says, “if they find any problems, they won’t scold you then. They will scold you in front of everyone in a meeting later.”

  “领导下来视察工作,”徐的朋友说:“如果他们发现了问题,他们不会当时批评你,他们在开会时当着所有人骂你。”

  “It’s insulting and humiliating to people all the time,” his friend says. “Punish someone to make an example for everyone else. It’s systematic,” he adds. In certain cases, if a manager decides that a worker has made an especially costly mistake, the worker has to prepare a formal apology. “They must read a promise letter aloud – ‘I won’t make this mistake again’– to everyone.”

  “总是对人格进行侮辱。”他的朋友说;“杀一儆百,在这里是系统性的。”有时,如果经理认为员工犯的错造成重大损失,他必须正式道歉。“他们必须大声朗读认错书,当着大家的面说:我再也不犯这种错了。”

  This culture of high-stress work, anxiety and humiliation contributes to widespread depression. Xu says there was another suicide a few months ago. He saw it himself. The man was a student who worked on the iPhone assembly line. “Somebody I knew, somebody I saw around the cafeteria,” he says.

  高压力、焦虑和屈辱,这种文化导致抑郁症频发。徐说,几个月前又有一起自杀。他亲眼目睹了。那个人是个学生,在手机装配线工作。“我认识那个人,我在开水间见过那人。”

  After being publicly scolded by a manager, he got into a quarrel. Company officials called the police, though the worker hadn’t been violent, just angry.“He took it very personally,” Xu says, “and he couldn’t get through it.” Three days later, he jumped out of a ninth-storey window.

  他被公开批评后,和领导吵了起来。公司管理层叫来警察,尽管员工并未诉诸暴力,只是生气而已。“他把这件事揽到自己身上,气不过,三天后就从九楼窗户跳下来了。”

  So why didn’t the incident get any media coverage? I ask. Xu and his friend look at each other and shrug. “Here someone dies, one day later the whole thing doesn’t exist,” his friend says. “You forget about it.”

  但为什么没有媒体报道呢?我问。徐和他的朋友相视后耸耸肩。他的朋友说:“这里有人死了,第二天就跟什么都没发生一样。忘了。”

  ‘We look at everything at these companies,” Steve Jobs said after news of the suicides broke. “Foxconn is not a sweatshop. It’s a factory – but my gosh, they have restaurants and movie theaters… but it’s a factory. But they’ve had some suicides and attempted suicides – and they have 400,000 people there. The rate is under what the US rate is, but it’s still troubling.”Apple CEO, Tim Cook, visited Longhua in 2011 and reportedly met suicide-prevention experts and top management to discuss the epidemic.

  乔布斯在自杀事件曝光后宣称:“我们关注着这些公司的一举一动。”“富士康不是血汗工厂。他就是一个工厂,老天啊,他们有餐厅、电影院,但它还是一个工厂。确实有一些自杀案例和自杀倾向,可毕竟他们有40万员工啊。这个比例比美国还低,但它仍然算一个问题。”蒂姆库克2011年去龙华参观,报道称他和自杀预防专家及高管们就自杀潮进行了讨论。

  In 2012, 150 workers gathered on a rooftop and threatened to jump. They were promised improvements and talked down by management; they had, essentially, wielded the threat of killing themselves as a bargaining tool.In 2016, a smaller group did it again. Just a month before we spoke, Xu says, seven or eight workers gathered on a rooftop and threatened to jump unless they were paid the wages they were due, which had apparently been withheld. Eventually, Xu says, Foxconn agreed to pay the wages and the workers were talked down.

  2012年,150位工人聚在楼顶,威胁要跳楼。公司向他们保证会改进,管理层把他们劝了下来;他们本就想用自杀作为一种讨价的工具。2016年,又有一伙人这么做,人数稍少些。就在我们谈话前一个月,徐说,七八个人聚在楼顶威胁说,除非发放应得的工资,否则就跳楼,很显然,他们被拖欠了工资。徐说,最后富士康同意发工资,工人们被劝下来了。

  When I ask Xu about Apple and the iPhone, his response is swift: “We don’t blame Apple. We blame Foxconn.” When I ask the men if they would consider working at Foxconn again if the conditions improved, the response is equally blunt. “You can’t change anything,” Xu says. “It will never change.”

  当我问徐苹果和苹果手机时,他马上回答:“我们不怪苹果,我们怪富士康。”我问两个男人,如果条件改善了,他们还会考虑回富士康工作吗?回答很干脆:“你什么都改变不了!不会变的!”

  Wang and I set off for the main worker entrance. We wind around the perimeter, which stretches on and on – we have no idea this is barely a fraction of the factory at this point. After walking along the perimeter for 20 minutes or so, we come to another entrance, another security checkpoint. That’s when it hits me. I have to use the bathroom. Desperately. And that gives me an idea. There’s a bathroom in there, just a few hundred feet down a stairwell by the security point. I see the universal stick-man signage and I gesture to it. This checkpoint is much smaller, much more informal. There’s only one guard, a young man who looks bored.

  王和我往工人主入口处走,我们绕着围墙,走啊走,我们不知道这只是工厂的一部分。走了20来分钟,我们来到另一个入口,这里也有安检。当时我内急,必须找个卫生间用。急得很,这倒让我想到一个主意。里面有厕所,从安检处顺着楼梯间走几百米就是。我看到了全球通用的小人标识,我朝它指了指。这个检查点很小,很不正规,就一个年轻保安,他看起来闲得发慌。

  Wang asks something a little pleADIngly in Chinese. The guard slowly shakes his head no, looks at me. The strain on my face is very, very real. She asks again – he falters for a second, then another no.We’ll be right back, she insists, and now we’re clearly making him uncomfortable. Mostly me. He doesn’t want to deal with this. Come right back, he says. Of course, we don’t.

  小王用中文说了几句好话。保安缓缓地摇着头,盯着我。我脸上的表情很逼真,她又求了一遍,保安支吾了片刻,可还是不同意。我们马上就回来,她坚持说,现在显然他有点不好意思了。当然,我更不好意思。他不想再纠缠了。快去快回,他说。当然,我们并没有。

  To my knowledge, no American journalist has been inside a Foxconn plant without permission and a tour guide, without a carefully curated visit to selected parts of the factory to demonstrate how OK things really are.

  据我所知,没有美国记者通过这种方式进过富士康工厂:未经允许,没有陪同,没有按精心设计的路线参观一些精挑细选的部门,看看这里有多棒。

  Maybe the most striking thing, beyond its size – it would take us nearly an hour to briskly walk across Longhua – is how radically different one end is from the other. It’s like a gentrified city in that regard.

  我们花了近一个小时才草草穿过华龙厂,除了规模,兴许最令人吃惊的是工厂外围和中心天差地别,在这一点上,这里就像一个贵族化的城市。

  On the outskirts, let’s call them, there are spilt chemicals, rusting facilities and poORLY overseen industrial labour. The closer you get to the city centre – remember, this is a factory – the more the quality of life, or at least the amenities and the infrastructure, improves.

  在它的郊区,姑且这么叫吧,有四处流淌的化学品、生锈的设备和无人监督的工人。你越靠近市中心——记住,其实是工厂——生活质量越高,或者说至少设施和基础建设提升了。

  As we get deeper in, surrounded by more and more people, it feels like we’re getting noticed less. The barrage of stares mutates into disinterested glances. My working theory: the plant is so vast, security so tight, that if we are inside just walking around, we must have been allowed to do so. That or nobody really gives a shit.

  我们越深入,周围的人越多,对我们的注意就越少。一束束注视的目光转变成冷漠的一瞥。他们的工作理念是,工厂这么大,安保这么严,如果我们能在里面到处逛,肯定是获准如此的,没人会鸟你。

  We start trying to make our way to the G2 factory block, where we’ve been told iPhones are made. After leaving “downtown”, we begin seeing towering, monolithic factory blocks – C16, E7 and so on, many surrounded by crowds of workers.

  我们开始设法进入G2工厂区。我们得知苹果手机就在那里生产。离开“市中心”,我们开始看到高耸、庞大的厂房——C16,E7等等,周围全是工人。

  I worry about getting too cavalier and remind myself not to push it; we’ve been inside Foxconn for almost an hour now. The crowds have been thinning out the farther away from the centre we get. Then there it is: G2. It’s identical to the factory blocks that cluster around it, that threaten to fade into the background of the smoggy static sky.

  我担心太冒失,提醒自己不要太贪心。我们在富士康里已经一个小时了。距离中心越远,人就越少。然后我们就到了G2,这里和它周围的厂房一样,几乎要消失进雾霾笼罩下、凝固的天空中。

  G2 looks deserted, though. A row of impossibly rusted lockers runs outside the building. No one’s around. The door is open, so we go in. To the left, there’s an entry to a massive, darkened space; we’re heading for that when someone calls out.A floor manager has just come down the stairs and he asks us what we’re doing. My translator stammers something about a meeting and the man looks confused; then he shows us the computer monitoring system he uses to oversee production on the floor. There’s no shift right now, he says, but this is how they watch.

  可G2看起来很荒凉。大楼外竟放着一排生锈的锁柜。周围没有人,大门开着,我们径直走了进去。在左边,有个入口可以进入一个庞大、黑暗的空间。我们朝那里走去,突然有人叫了起来。一个车间经理从楼梯上下来,问我们干什么的。我的翻译搪塞说来开个会,那个人看起来将信将疑。他给我们看了用来监督产品生产的电脑监控系统。现在没人上班,他说,可他们就是这样监理。

  No sign of iPhones, though. We keep walking. Outside G3, teetering stacks of black gadgets wrapped in plastic sit in front of what looks like another loading zone. A couple of workers on smartphones drift by us.We get close enough to see the gadgets through the plastic and, nope, not iPhones either. They look like Apple TVs, minus the company logo. There are probably thousands stacked here, awaiting the next step in the assembly line.

  但我们没看到苹果手机。我们继续走。在G3外面,一堆包在塑料中的黑色电子产品堆砌在另一个装卸区前,摇摇欲坠,几个生产智能手机的工人从身边经过。我们通过塑料包装仔细研究了产品。不,也不是苹果手机,看起来像是没有公司标志的苹果电视。大概有几千个,等待下一步装配。

  If this is indeed where iPhones and Apple TVs are made, it’s a fairly aggressively shitty place to spend long days, unless you have a penchant for damp concrete and rust. The blocks keep coming, so we keep walking.Longhua starts to feel like the dull middle of a dystopian novel, where the dread sustains but the plot doesn’t.

  如果苹果手机和电视都是在这里生产的,那这地方还真是没法长待,除非你喜欢潮湿的水泥和铁锈。前面的房子很多,我们继续前进。龙华开始让人感觉像一本反乌托邦小说中沉闷的中间章节,还令人恐惧,可没什么情节。

  We could keep going, but to our left, we see what look like large housing complexes, probably the dormitories, complete with cagelike fences built out over the roof and the windows, and so we head in that direction.The closer we get to the dorms, the thicker the crowds get and the more lanyards and black glasses and faded jeans and sneakers we see. College-age kids are gathered, smoking cigarettes, crowded around picnic tables, sitting on kerbs.

  我们还能继续走,但在我们左边,可以看到一些像大型住宅楼的建筑,可能那里就是宿舍楼,楼顶和窗户都被笼子一样的栅栏包裹。于是我们向那边走去。离宿舍越近,人也越来越多,挂工牌的绳子、墨镜、褪色的牛仔裤和运动鞋越来越多。那些孩子们不过就是上大学的年纪,聚在一起抽烟,围着野餐桌,坐在石头上。

  And, yes, the body-catching nets are still there. Limp and sagging, they give the impression of tarps that have half blown off the things they’re supposed to cover. I think of Xu, who said: “The nets are pointless. If somebody wants to commit suicide, they will do it.”

  是的,没错,捕人网还在,软塌塌地坠在那里,像被吹歪了的油布一样,露出本该遮住的东西。我想起了徐的话,他说,“这个网没用,如果有人想自杀,他还是会去的。”

  We are drawing stares again – away from the factories, maybe folks have more time and reason to indulge their curiosity. In any case, we’ve been inside Foxconn for an hour. I have no idea if the guard put out an alert when we didn’t come back from the bathroom or if anyone is looking for us or what. The sense that it’s probably best not to push it prevails, even though we haven’t made it on to a working assembly line.

  我们又开始引人注目了,远离工厂,人们可能有更多时间和理由满足自己的好奇心了。不管怎么说,我们已经在富士康里呆了一小时了。不知道我们没有从厕所回去,保安有没有报警,有没有人派人找我们或是什么。最好别得寸进尺,这种感觉现在强烈起来,尽管我们没能看到生产线。

  We head back the way we came. Before long, we find an exit. It’s pushing evening as we join a river of thousands and, heads down, shuffle through the security checkpoint. Nobody says a word. Getting out of the haunting megafactory is a relief, but the mood sticks.

  我们沿着来的路回去,不久就找到了一个出口。正赶上晚上下班,我们加入上千人的队伍,低着脑袋,从安检点混了出去。没人说一句话。走出这个阴森森的大工厂是一种解脱,可心情却没有立刻平复。

  No, there were no child labourers with bleeding hands pleading at the windows.There were a number of things that would surely violate the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration code – unprotected construction workers, open chemical spillage, decaying, rusted structures, and so on – but there are probably a lot of things at US factories that would violate OSHA code too.

  和你想的不同,这里并没有双手流血的儿童在窗口乞怜。当然,这里很多事都违反了美国职业健康和安全管理局的条例——建筑工人不受保护,化学品随意流淌,建筑生霉生锈,不一而足,但美国工厂大概也会违反这些规定。

  Apple may well be right when it argues that these facilities are nicer than others out there. Foxconn was not our stereotypical conception of a sweatshop. But there was a different kind of ugliness.

  苹果称这些设施比其他地方的好,它可能说得对。富士康不是如我们固有意识里那种血汗工厂的样子,但这里另有一种丑陋。

  For whatever reason – the rules imposing silence on the factory floors, its pervasive reputation for tragedy or the general feeling of unpleasantness the environment itself imparts – Longhua felt heavy, even oppressively subdued.

  不论是什么原因,是那些厂房里禁言的规定,广为人知的悲剧抑或环境自身让人产生的不快,龙华给人的感觉很沉重,甚至压抑得难以忍受。

  When I look back at the photos I snapped, I can’t find one that has someone smiling in it. It does not seem like a surprise that people subjected to long hours, repetitive work and harsh management might develop psychological issues.

  回看我拍的照片,我找不到里面有一个在笑。这并不奇怪,大家工作了那么长时间,重复劳动和严厉的管理层可能让人产生心理问题。

  That unease is palpable – it’s worked into the environment itself. As Xu said: “It’s not a good place for human beings.”

  你感觉得到那种不自在,整个氛围都是如此,就像小徐所说:“真不是人呆的地方。”

  ?This is an edited extract fromThe One Device: The Secret History of the iPhonebyBrian Merchant, published by Bantam Press (£16.99). To order a copy for £14.44 go tobookshop.theguardian.comor call 0330 333 6846. Free UK p&;p over £10, online orders only. Phone orders min p&;p of £1.99.

关键词阅读:iPhone 富士康

责任编辑:Robot RF13015
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